于韦斯屈莱市简况

[ 发布时间:2016年06月15日 来源: 作者: 友城处]

于韦斯屈莱市概况

 

于韦斯屈莱

Jyväskylä

 

  l 地理位置 Location

 

   于韦斯屈莱是中芬兰区湖区(Lakeland)西部的一个直辖市。该市位于派延奈湖(Lake Päijänne)的北岸,坦佩雷东北147公里,赫尔辛基北270公里。于韦斯屈莱有328个湖泊,河流湖泊占该市总面积的20.1%(295平方公里)。市中心位于于韦斯屈莱湖畔。 

 

Jyväskylä is a city and municipality in Central Finland in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland. It is located on the northern coast of Lake Päijänne, 147 kilometres north-east of Tampere and 270 kilometres north of Helsinki. There are 328 lakes in the city. Lakes and rivers constitute 20,1% (295 km2) of the total area of the city. The city centre is located on the shores of a small Jyväsjärvi.

 

    于韦斯屈莱景色以山脉、森林和湖泊为特色。建筑师阿尔托(Alvar Aalto)认为于韦斯屈莱的山景可以媲美意大利的托斯卡纳(Toscana):“于韦斯屈莱山脊的坡度浑似菲耶索莱(Fiesole)山上的葡萄园。”

 

The landscape in Jyväskylä is hilly, forested and full of waters. The architect Alvar Aalto compared the hilly landscape of Jyväskylä to Toscana in Italy: "The slope of Jyväskylä ridge is almost like the mountain vineyards of Fiesole".

 

  l 优势产业 Competitive industries

 

    如今于韦斯屈莱的主要生活来源包括教育和医疗保健服务、造纸机械设备生产、信息技术和可再生能源。最重要的私有企业有造纸机械设备生产商美卓(Metso)、零售贸易企业Keskimaa合作社、房地产服务企业ISS以及风力涡轮制造商美闻达(Moventas)。最大的公共部门雇主包括于韦斯屈莱市、中芬兰区医疗保健区、于韦斯屈莱大学和空军学院。

 

Nowadays main sources of livelihood in Jyväskylä are educational and health care services, paper machinery production, information technology and renewable energy. Most important private employers are paper machinery producer Metso ltd., retail trade company Keskimaa Cooperative Society, real estate service company ISS and wind turbine gear manufacturer Moventas. Biggest public employers are the City of Jyväskylä, Central Finland Health Care District, University of Jyväskylä and the Air Force Academy.

 

    于韦斯屈莱拥有教育之城、文化活动之城、技能、能力和创新之城和体育之城的美誉。该市为各个年龄段的人群提供多样化的教育服务。综合大学于韦斯屈莱大学和JAMK实用科技大学是芬兰最好的研究教育机构,吸引了越来越多的国际学生。

 

Jyväskylä is also known as the city of education, culture and events, skills, competence and innovation and sports. It provides a diversity of educational offerings for people of all ages. The multidisciplinary University of Jyväskylä and the JAMK University of Applied Sciences are among Finland's leading research and educational institutions with an increasing number of international students. 

 

    于韦斯屈莱每年举办音乐会、节日、博物馆和剧院等诸多文化活动。于韦斯屈莱节是斯堪的纳维亚最古老的夏季节日之一,主要展演无声戏剧。该市还是芬兰第二大会展城市,每年在会展和交易中心Jyväskylä Paviljonki举办多次国内国际会议。在国际上,于韦斯屈莱以阿尔托设计的建筑以及耐斯特石油杯芬兰拉力赛而闻名。而该市有大约450处运动场地以及200家体育俱乐部。

 

Jyväskylä is home for a large variety of cultural activities such as concerts, festivals, museums and theatres. The Jyväskylä Festival, which is the oldest on-going summer festival in Scandinavia, concentrates on non-verbal theatre. Jyväskylä is the second most important fair city in Finland. Every year several domestic and international congresses are held at the congress and trade fair centre Jyväskylä Paviljonki. Internationally Jyväskylä is perhaps best known for the architecture of Alvar Aalto and for the world championship rally Neste Oil Rally Finland. There are approximately 450 sports venues and 200 local sports clubs in Jyväskylä.

 

    于韦斯屈莱在造纸、造纸机械、能源生产、环境、信息和健康技术以及纳米技术领域拥有专业技术。

 

Special expertise can be found in the fields of paper manufacturing and paper machinery as well as energy production, environmental, information and wellness technology as well as nanotechnology.

 

  l 旅游资源 Tourism sources

 

    于韦斯屈莱的旅游景点包括于韦斯屈莱艺术博物馆、芬兰手工艺博物馆、阿尔托博物馆等等。于韦斯屈莱艺术博物馆是该市最大的博物馆,位于市中心。阿尔托博物馆和中芬兰区博物馆位于于韦斯屈莱大学附近,共同构成了一个文化中心。这两个博物馆都是由著名实用主义设计师阿尔托设计。阿尔托博物馆展出该设计师最重要的作品和设计。其中最重要的一项设计是Säynätsalo 市政厅,位于Säynätsalo 岛。而手工艺博物馆展出了芬兰的所有手工艺。芬兰民族服饰中心是该博物馆的一个构成部分。

 

The most famous museums of Jyväskylä include Jyväskylä Art Museum, the Craft Museum of Finland and Alvar Aalto Museum. The biggest art museum in the city is Jyväskylä Art Museum located in the city centre. The Alvar Aalto Museum and the Museum of Central Finland form a centre of culture in the immediate vicinity of the historical campus of the University of Jyväskylä. Both museums are designed by a functionalist Alvar Aalto. The Alvar Aalto Museum displays the artist's most important work and design. One of architect Aalto's most significant works Säynätsalo Town Hall is located in Säynätsalo island. The Craft Museum of Finland is a handicraft museum covering entire Finland. The Centre for Finnish National Costumes forms a part of the museum.

 

    于韦斯屈莱艺术节每年7月中旬举办,吸引了大量的音乐家、乐队、现代马戏、喜剧演员、默剧、形体剧和电影制作人。这是芬兰最著名的节日之一。耐斯特石油杯芬兰拉力赛在7月末举办,是北欧国家举办最大年度赛事,也是世界汽车拉力锦标赛(WRC)的其中一站。

 

Jyväskylä Arts Festival in the middle of July accommodates musicians, bands, contemporary circus, comedians, mimes, physical theatre, storytellers and film makers. It is one of the most well known festivals in Finland. Neste Oil Rally Finland in the end of July is the biggest annually organised event in Nordic countries and a part of the WRC World Rally Championships. 

 

  l 历史文化 History and culture

 

    于韦斯屈莱地区,有来自石器时代的考古发现。现存最早的税务文件文书显示,1539年于韦斯屈莱地区有七处地产。

 

In the Jyväskylä region, there are archeological findings from the Stone Age. According to the oldest available taxation documents (maakirja) there were seven estates on the Jyväskylä region in 1539.

 

    于韦斯屈莱市成立于1837年3月22日,由俄罗斯沙皇尼古拉斯一世创建,而该市的基础设施建设基本上是从零开始。城镇原来建于于韦斯屈莱湖(与派延奈湖相连)和于韦斯屈莱山脉(Harju)之间,包括当前网格状城市中心的绝大部分。

 

The City of Jyväskylä was founded on 22 March 1837 by Czar Nicholas I of Russia and the infrastructure was essentially built from scratch. The original town was built between Lake Jyväsjärvi (which is connected to Lake Päijänne) and the Jyväskylä ridge (Harju), and consisted of most of the current grid-style city centre.

 

    从于韦斯屈莱市发展的角度看,19世纪50年代和60年代创立学校是最重要的一步。最早的三所以芬兰语为教学语言的学校都是在于韦斯屈莱市创建,1858年创建的公立中学,1863年的师范学校以及1864年的女校。

 

The establishment of schools in the 1850s and 1860s proved to be the most important step from the point of view of the later development of Jyväskylä. The first three Finnish-speaking schools in the world were founded in Jyväskylä, the lycée in 1858, the teachers’ college in 1863, and the girls’ school in 1864.

 

    20世纪初,该市经历了数次扩张。现今于韦斯屈莱市的绝大部分是在继续战争之后建立的,当时难民从卡累利阿和其他地方涌入该市,导致房屋严重短缺。21世纪,该市快速增长,每年增加人口超过1000人。

 

In the early 20th century, the town expanded several times. Most of today's Jyväskylä was built after the Continuation war, when refugees from Karelia and other parts of the country moved to the city and housing was badly needed. During 21st century Jyväskylä has grown fast – by over 1,000 inhabitants every year.

 

 l 城市图片 Pictures

 

 

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